Showing posts from June, 2024

Government of India Act 1858

The British Administration in India can broadly be divided into two phases. The first phase was from 1772 to 1858 when the East India Company ruled , and the second phase was from 1858 to 1947, when the British Crown ruled. The Charter Act of 1853 allowed the East India Company to rule India until further order. Many in England and in India opposed the rule of the East India Company and wanted to establish the British Crown's rule. The revolt of 1857 provided an opportunity to the British Government to end the company's rule and establish direct rule. The East India Company was blamed for the outbreak of the revolt, though the company tried to defend itself. John Stuart Mill, a well-known scholar, argued in favour of the company and reminded the British Government about the 'great service' the company had rendered both to India and to the Crown. Ross Mangles, the chairman of the company, asserted that an intermediate non-political and perfectly independent body like th

Indian Councils Act 1861

The Indian Councils Act of 1861 was a significant piece of legislation passed by the British Parliament that brought about important changes in the governance of British India following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 . Features of Indian Council Act, 1861 Provisions of Indian Council Act, 1861 1. The Indian Council Act added to the Viceroy's Executive Council, a fifth member who had to be an expert in 'finance' and 'law'. 2. The Act empowered the Viceroy and Governor-General to make rules for the convenient transaction of business by the executive council and authorized any one member to discharge the duties in his absence. The Act also introduced the Portfolio System under which the departments of Government were divided between the members of the council. 3. For the purpose of the legislation, the Viceroy's executive council was expanded by an addition of not less than six and not more than twelve members. The Governor General nominated them for two years.

Indian Councils Act 1892

The Indian Council Act of 1861 had many shortcomings, as discussed above. Nationalist feelings were growing in the late 19th century among the educated middle class. The Congress party, formed in 1885, started demanding, among other things, the expansion and Indianization of the legislative council. Congress leaders also demanded the right to ask questions in the legislative council on any subject and the right to discussion on the Budget. Lord Dufferin, the Governor-General of India between 1884 and 1988, wanted to give more seats to western-educated Indians than the traditional, orthodox Indian rulers. He appointed a committee headed by Sir John Chenny. The committee recommended that the legislative council should be developed as a 'mini parliament.' The Congress party regularly passed resolutions in its annual sessions to restructure the legislative council. Leading newspapers also raised similar demands. Lord Dufferin sent a suggestion, based on the Chenny committee's

The Revolt of 1857: Causes, Nature, Failure and Impact

The Revolt of 1857, also known as the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, or the First War of Indian Independence, was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India against the British East India Company's rule. Spanning several months from May 1857 to June 1858, the revolt was characterized by widespread but sporadic and uncoordinated insurgencies across northern and central India. Causes of the Revolt of 1857 The causes of the revolt were multifaceted, involving military, political and economic grievances that had been simmering for years. Military Cause The revolt broke out over the issue of greased cartridges when the news spread that the covers of the cartridges were made of cow's and pig's fat. Most of the soldiers in the Bengal Army were Hindus or Muslims, especially of the upper Hindu caste. The soldiers had many more grievances. Some upper-caste Hindu sepoys had earlier revolted on religious issues. In 1852, the 38th Native Infantry refused to go to Bu

About suits by or against minors and lunatics

Legal proceedings involving minors and lunatics (persons of unsound mind) have special rules and protections in place due to their inability to fully understand or engage in legal actions on their own. Here’s a detailed overview of how lawsuits involving these parties are typically handled: Suits Involving Minors 1. Definition A minor is an individual who has not reached the age of majority, typically 18 years in many jurisdictions. 2. Guardian or Next Friend Minors cannot sue or be sued directly. Instead, legal actions on behalf of a minor must be conducted by a representative known as a "next friend" (for initiating suits) or a "guardian ad litem" (for defending suits). The court appoints a next friend or guardian ad litem to ensure the minor’s interests are protected. 3. Filing a Suit The next friend initiates a lawsuit by filing a complaint on behalf of the minor. The next friend must show that they are acting in the minor's best

Ottniel Baartman: A Cricketing Journey

Ottniel Baartman is a professional cricketer known for his right-arm fast-medium bowling. He was born on March 18, 1993, in Oudtshoorn, South Africa. His journey in cricket began in the domestic circuits, where he made his first-class debut for South Western Districts in the 2014–15 Sunfoil 3-Day Cup on January 22, 2015. Baartman's talent was evident from the start, and he quickly made a name for himself with his consistent performances. In September 2018, Baartman was named in Northern Cape's squad for the Africa T20 Cup, marking his entry into the shorter format of the game. The following year, he was included in Northern Cape's squad for the CSA Provincial T20 Cup, further establishing his prowess in Twenty20 cricket. Baartman's skills on the field caught the attention of national selectors, and in January 2021, he was named in South Africa's Test squad for their series against Pakistan. However, a medical reason prevented him from joining the tour. Despite th

The governance reforms of the East India Company up to 1857

The direct rule of the East India Company was established in 1772 when Warren Hastings ended the dual government in Bengal. Until then, the Company enjoyed power without any responsibility. Now, after 1772, the Company had to face the real problem of governance. The East India Company was not trained in this field, as it was a trading company. Therefore, they experimented with many things in revenue, civil, and judicial administration, but in all stages of experimentation, their primary aim was to maximize profit. In their philosophy of administration, if law and order were given preference, it was mainly because they wanted to exploit the natural resources of India without any disturbances. The East India Company started fighting and annexing territories in India from the mid-eighteenth century. The Company created a problem for the British Government. The biggest question in the mind of the British Government was regarding the extent of control they should have over the Company. The

Mahalwari System: Features, Advantages, and Disadvantages Explained

The Mahalwari System was indeed a significant land revenue system implemented by the British in India. Introduced by Holt Mackenzie in 1822 and developed further under Lord William Bentinck in 1833-34, it was applied in the western part of the United Provinces, Punjab, and parts of the Central Provinces. The term “Mahal” refers to a village or a community made from a group of villages. Features of Mahalwari Settlement 1. Land revenue settlement was made with the Mahal or gram. The local zamindar or lambardar was responsible, on behalf of all peasants, for the payment of land revenue. 2. Initially, in 1833, two-thirds of the net produce was fixed as land revenue, but later it was reduced to one-half of the net produce. 3. The peasants had to deposit the revenue to the zamindar. The percentage that each peasant had to pay was the same, but the quantity varied. 4. The peasant was free to sell or mortgage their land. 5. The settlement was made for thirty years and in some places for